Stone Age Junior
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Stone Age Junior When Was the Stone Age? VideoMy First Stone Age Review - with Tom Vasel
The date range of this period is ambiguous, disputed, and variable, depending upon the region in question.
While it is possible to speak of a general 'stone age' period for the whole of humanity, some groups never developed metal- smelting technology, and so remained in the so-called 'stone age' until they encountered technologically developed cultures.
The term was innovated to describe the archaeological cultures of Europe. It may not always be the best in relation to regions such as some parts of the Indies and Oceania, where farmers or hunter-gatherers used stone for tools until European colonisation began.
Archaeologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries CE, who adapted the three-age system to their ideas, hoped to combine cultural anthropology and archaeology in such a way that a specific contemporaneous tribe can be used to illustrate the way of life and beliefs of the people exercising a particular Stone-Age technology.
As a description of people living today, the term stone age is controversial. The Association of Social Anthropologists discourages this use, asserting: .
To describe any living group as 'primitive' or 'Stone Age' inevitably implies that they are living representatives of some earlier stage of human development that the majority of humankind has left behind.
In the s, South African archaeologists organizing the stone tool collections of that country observed that they did not fit the newly detailed Three-Age System.
In the words of J. Desmond Clark , . It was early realized that the threefold division of culture into Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages adopted in the nineteenth century for Europe had no validity in Africa outside the Nile valley.
Consequently, they proposed a new system for Africa, the Three-stage System. There are in effect two Stone Ages, one part of the Three-age and the other constituting the Three-stage.
They refer to one and the same artifacts and the same technologies, but vary by locality and time. The three-stage system was proposed in by Astley John Hilary Goodwin, a professional archaeologist, and Clarence van Riet Lowe , a civil engineer and amateur archaeologist, in an article titled "Stone Age Cultures of South Africa" in the journal Annals of the South African Museum.
He therefore proposed a relative chronology of periods with floating dates, to be called the Earlier and Later Stone Age. The Middle Stone Age would not change its name, but it would not mean Mesolithic.
The duo thus reinvented the Stone Age. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, iron-working technologies were either invented independently or came across the Sahara from the north see iron metallurgy in Africa.
The Neolithic was characterized primarily by herding societies rather than large agricultural societies, and although there was copper metallurgy in Africa as well as bronze smelting, archaeologists do not currently recognize a separate Copper Age or Bronze Age.
Moreover, the technologies included in those 'stages', as Goodwin called them, were not exactly the same.
Since then, the original relative terms have become identified with the technologies of the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, so that they are no longer relative.
Moreover, there has been a tendency to drop the comparative degree in favor of the positive: resulting in two sets of Early, Middle and Late Stone Ages of quite different content and chronologies.
By voluntary agreement, [ citation needed ] archaeologists respect the decisions of the Pan-African Congress on Prehistory , which meets every four years to resolve archaeological business brought before it.
Delegates are actually international; the organization takes its name from the topic. It adopted Goodwin and Lowe's 3-stage system at that time, the stages to be called Early, Middle and Later.
The problem of the transitions in archaeology is a branch of the general philosophic continuity problem, which examines how discrete objects of any sort that are contiguous in any way can be presumed to have a relationship of any sort.
In archaeology, the relationship is one of causality. The problem is in the nature of this boundary. If there is no distinct boundary, then the population of A suddenly stopped using the customs characteristic of A and suddenly started using those of B, an unlikely scenario in the process of evolution.
If transitions do not exist, then there is no proof of any continuity between A and B. The Stone Age of Europe is characteristically in deficit of known transitions.
The 19th and early 20th-century innovators of the modern three-age system recognized the problem of the initial transition, the "gap" between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Louis Leakey provided something of an answer by proving that man evolved in Africa. The Stone Age must have begun there to be carried repeatedly to Europe by migrant populations.
The different phases of the Stone Age thus could appear there without transitions. The burden on African archaeologists became all the greater, because now they must find the missing transitions in Africa.
The problem is difficult and ongoing. The chronologic basis for definition was entirely relative. With the arrival of scientific means of finding an absolute chronology, the two intermediates turned out to be will-of-the-wisps.
They were in fact Middle and Lower Paleolithic. Fauresmith is now considered to be a facies of Acheulean , while Sangoan is a facies of Lupemban.
Once seriously questioned, the intermediates did not wait for the next Pan African Congress two years hence, but were officially rejected in again on an advisory basis by Burg Wartenstein Conference 29, Systematic Investigation of the African Later Tertiary and Quaternary ,  a conference in anthropology held by the Wenner-Gren Foundation, at Burg Wartenstein Castle, which it then owned in Austria, attended by the same scholars that attended the Pan African Congress, including Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey , who was delivering a pilot presentation of her typological analysis of Early Stone Age tools, to be included in her contribution to Olduvai Gorge , "Excavations in Beds I and II, — In Jens Jacob Worsaae first proposed a division of the Stone Age into older and younger parts based on his work with Danish kitchen middens that began in The major subdivisions of the Three-age Stone Age cross two epoch boundaries on the geologic time scale :.
The succession of these phases varies enormously from one region and culture to another. At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period about 2,, to , years ago , simple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors.
A somewhat more sophisticated Lower Paleolithic tradition, known as the Chopper chopping-tool industry, is widely distributed in the Eastern Hemisphere.
This tradition is thought to have been the work of the hominin species named Homo erectus. Although no such fossil tools have yet been found, it is believed that H.
About , years ago, a new Lower Paleolithic tool, the hand ax, appeared. The earliest European hand axes are assigned to the Abbevillian industry , which developed in northern France in the valley of the Somme River ; a later, more refined hand-axe tradition is seen in the Acheulian industry , evidence of which has been found in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.
Some of the earliest known hand axes were found at Olduvai Gorge Tanzania in association with remains of H. Alongside the hand-axe tradition there developed a distinct and very different stone-tool industry, based on flakes of stone: special tools were made from worked carefully shaped flakes of flint.
In Europe, the Clactonian industry is one example of a flake tradition. The early flake industries probably contributed to the development of the Middle Paleolithic flake tools of the Mousterian industry , which is associated with the remains of Neanderthal man.
The earliest documented stone tools have been found in eastern Africa, manufacturers unknown, at the 3. The tools were formed by knocking pieces off a river pebble, or stones like it, with a hammerstone to obtain large and small pieces with one or more sharp edges.
The original stone is called a core; the resultant pieces, flakes. Typically, but not necessarily, small pieces are detached from a larger piece, in which case the larger piece may be called the core and the smaller pieces the flakes.
The prevalent usage, however, is to call all the results flakes, which can be confusing. A split in half is called bipolar flaking.
Consequently, the method is often called "core-and-flake". More recently, the tradition has been called "small flake" since the flakes were small compared to subsequent Acheulean tools.
Pebble cores are Various refinements in the shape have been called choppers, discoids, polyhedrons, subspheroid, etc.
To date no reasons for the variants have been ascertained: . However, they would not have been manufactured for no purpose: .
Pebble cores can be useful in many cutting, scraping or chopping tasks, but The whole point of their utility is that each is a "sharp-edged rock" in locations where nature has not provided any.
There is additional evidence that Oldowan, or Mode 1, tools were utilized in "percussion technology"; that is, they were designed to be gripped at the blunt end and strike something with the edge, from which use they were given the name of choppers.
Modern science has been able to detect mammalian blood cells on Mode 1 tools at Sterkfontein , Member 5 East, in South Africa. As the blood must have come from a fresh kill, the tool users are likely to have done the killing and used the tools for butchering.
Plant residues bonded to the silicon of some tools confirm the use to chop plants. Although the exact species authoring the tools remains unknown, Mode 1 tools in Africa were manufactured and used predominantly by Homo habilis.
They cannot be said to have developed these tools or to have contributed the tradition to technology. They continued a tradition of yet unknown origin.
As chimpanzees sometimes naturally use percussion to extract or prepare food in the wild, and may use either unmodified stones or stones that they have split, creating an Oldowan tool, the tradition may well be far older than its current record.
Towards the end of Oldowan in Africa a new species appeared over the range of Homo habilis : Homo erectus.
The most immediate cause of the new adjustments appears to have been an increasing aridity in the region and consequent contraction of parkland savanna , interspersed with trees and groves, in favor of open grassland, dated 1.
According to the current evidence which may change at any time Mode 1 tools are documented from about 2. According to this chronology Mode 1 was inherited by Homo from unknown Hominans , probably Australopithecus and Paranthropus , who must have continued on with Mode 1 and then with Mode 2 until their extinction no later than 1.
Meanwhile, living contemporaneously in the same regions H. At about 1. Mode 1 was now being shared by a number of Hominans over the same ranges, presumably subsisting in different niches, but the archaeology is not precise enough to say which.
Tools of the Oldowan tradition first came to archaeological attention in Europe, where, being intrusive and not well defined, compared to the Acheulean, they were puzzling to archaeologists.
The mystery would be elucidated by African archaeology at Olduvai, but meanwhile, in the early 20th century, the term "Pre-Acheulean" came into use in climatology.
P, Brooks, a British climatologist working in the United States, used the term to describe a "chalky boulder clay" underlying a layer of gravel at Hoxne , central England, where Acheulean tools had been found.
Hugo Obermaier , a contemporary German archaeologist working in Spain, quipped:. Unfortunately, the stage of human industry which corresponds to these deposits cannot be positively identified.
All we can say is that it is pre-Acheulean. This uncertainty was clarified by the subsequent excavations at Olduvai; nevertheless, the term is still in use for pre-Acheulean contexts, mainly across Eurasia, that are yet unspecified or uncertain but with the understanding that they are or will turn out to be pebble-tool.
There are ample associations of Mode 2 with H. One strong piece of evidence prevents the conclusion that only H. If the date is correct, either another Hominan preceded H.
After the initial appearance at Gona in Ethiopia at 2. The manufacturers had already left pebble tools at Yiron , Israel, at 2. Erectus was found also at Dmanisi , Georgia, from 1.
Pebble tools are found the latest first in southern Europe and then in northern. They begin in the open areas of Italy and Spain, the earliest dated to 1.
The mountains of Italy are rising at a rapid rate in the framework of geologic time; at 1. Europe was otherwise mountainous and covered over with dense forest, a formidable terrain for warm-weather savanna dwellers.
Similarly there is no evidence that the Mediterranean was passable at Gibraltar or anywhere else to H. They might have reached Italy and Spain along the coasts.
In northern Europe pebble tools are found earliest at Happisburgh , United Kingdom, from 0. The last traces are from Kent's Cavern , dated 0.
By that time H. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries archaeologists worked on the assumptions that a succession of Hominans and cultures prevailed, that one replaced another.
Today the presence of multiple hominans living contemporaneously near each other for long periods is accepted as proved true; moreover, by the time the previously assumed "earliest" culture arrived in northern Europe, the rest of Africa and Eurasia had progressed to the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, so that across the earth all three were for a time contemporaneous.
In any given region there was a progression from Oldowan to Acheulean, Lower to Upper, no doubt. The end of Oldowan in Africa was brought on by the appearance of Acheulean , or Mode 2, stone tools.
The earliest known instances are in the 1. Mode 2 is often found in association with H. It makes sense that the most advanced tools should have been innovated by the most advanced Hominan; consequently, they are typically given credit for the innovation.
A Mode 2 tool is a biface consisting of two concave surfaces intersecting to form a cutting edge all the way around, except in the case of tools intended to feature a point.
More work and planning go into the manufacture of a Mode 2 tool. The manufacturer hits a slab off a larger rock to use as a blank. Then large flakes are struck off the blank and worked into bifaces by hard-hammer percussion on an anvil stone.
Finally the edge is retouched: small flakes are hit off with a bone or wood soft hammer to sharpen or resharpen it. The core can be either the blank or another flake.
Blanks are ported for manufacturing supply in places where nature has provided no suitable stone. Although most Mode 2 tools are easily distinguished from Mode 1, there is a close similarity of some Oldowan and some Acheulean, which can lead to confusion.
Some Oldowan tools are more carefully prepared to form a more regular edge. One distinguishing criterion is the size of the flakes.
In North Africa, the presence of Mode 2 remains a mystery, as the oldest finds are from Thomas Quarry in Morocco at 0.
Evidence of use of the Nile Valley is in deficit, but Hominans could easily have reached the palaeo- Jordan river from Ethiopia along the shores of the Red Sea , one side or the other.
A crossing would not have been necessary, but it is more likely there than over a theoretical but unproven land bridge through either Gibraltar or Sicily.
Meanwhile, Acheulean went on in Africa past the 1. Its owner was still H. The Thoman Quarry Hominans in Morocco similarly are most likely Homo rhodesiensis ,  in the same evolutionary status as H.
Mode 2 is first known out of Africa at ' Ubeidiya , Israel, a site now on the Jordan River , then frequented over the long term hundreds of thousands of years by Homo on the shore of a variable-level palaeo-lake, long since vanished.
The geology was created by successive "transgression and regression" of the lake  resulting in four cycles of layers.
The cycles represent different ecologies and therefore different cross-sections of fauna, which makes it possible to date them.
They appear to be the same faunal assemblages as the Ferenta Faunal Unit in Italy, known from excavations at Selvella and Pieterfitta, dated to 1.
At 'Ubeidiya the marks on the bones of the animal species found there indicate that the manufacturers of the tools butchered the kills of large predators, an activity that has been termed "scavenging".
These activities cannot be understood therefore as the only or even the typical economic activity of Hominans.
Their interests were selective: they were primarily harvesting the meat of Cervids ,  which is estimated to have been available without spoiling for up to four days after the kill.
The majority of the animals at the site were of "Palaearctic biogeographic origin". The animals were not passing through; there was simply an overlap of normal ranges.
Of the Hominans, H. Teeth of undetermined species may have been H. They gave up the nomadic lifestyle of their Ice Age ancestors to begin farming.
Human artifacts in the Americas begin showing up from around this time, too. Much of what we know about life in the Stone Age and Stone Age people comes from the tools they left behind.
Hammerstones are some of the earliest and simplest stone tools. Prehistoric humans used hammerstones to chip other stones into sharp-edged flakes.
They also used hammerstones to break apart nuts, seeds and bones and to grind clay into pigment. Archaeologists refer to these earliest stone tools as the Oldowan toolkit.
Oldowan stone tools dating back nearly 2. Most of the makers of Oldowan tools were right-handed, leading experts to believe that handedness evolved very early in human history.
As technology progressed, humans created increasingly more sophisticated stone tools. These included hand axes, spear points for hunting large game, scrapers which could be used to prepare animal hides and awls for shredding plant fibers and making clothing.
Not all Stone Age tools were made of stone. Groups of humans experimented with other raw materials including bone, ivory and antler, especially later on in the Stone Age.
Later Stone Age tools are more diverse. Different groups sought different ways of making tools. Some examples of late Stone Age tools include harpoon points, bone and ivory needles, bone flutes for playing music and chisel-like stone flakes used for carving wood, antler or bone.
The oldest pottery known was found at an archaeological site in Japan. Fragments of clay containers used in food preparation at the site may be up to 16, years old.
Stone Age food varied over time and from region to region, but included the foods typical of hunter gatherers : meats, fish, eggs, grasses, tubers, fruits, vegetables, seeds and nuts.
Most researchers think the population density in most areas was low enough to avoid violent conflict between groups.
Stone Age wars may have started later when humans began settling and established economic currency in the form of agricultural goods.
The oldest known Stone Age art dates back to a later Stone Age period known as the Upper Paleolithic, about 40, years ago.
The earliest known depiction of a human in Stone Age art is a small ivory sculpture of a female figure with exaggerated breasts and genitalia. The figurine is named the Venus of Hohle Fels, after the cave in Germany in which it was discovered.
Humans started carving symbols and signs onto the walls of caves during the Stone Age using hammerstones and stone chisels.
These early murals, called petroglyphs, depict scenes of animals. Size T2. Buy View Add to wishlist Item added to wishlist. Item removed from wishlist.
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